In recent decades, a new generation of waste treatment plants based on biological treatments (mainly anaerobic digestion and/or composting) has arisen all over the world. These plants have been progressively substituted for incineration facilities and landfills. Although these plants have evident benefits in terms of their environmental impact and higher recovery of material and energy, the release into atmosphere of malodorous compounds and its mitigation is one of the main challenges that these plants face. In this review, the methodology to determine odors, the main causes of having undesirable gaseous emissions, and the characterization of odors are reviewed. Finally, another important topic of odor abatement technologies is treated, especially those related to biological low-impact processes. In conclusion, odor control is the main challenge for a sustainable implementation of modern waste treatment plants.